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今天你读书了吗?字体[ ] 颜色[ 绿 ]
分类:随笔小记  创建于:2006-09-15 被查看:1305次 [收藏:日记|作者] [评论]

培根经典《论读书》,王佐良先生译本,白话解译。

Francis Bacon. (1561–1626).  Essays, Civil and Moral.

The Harvard Classics.  1909–14.
 
L
 
Of Studies
 
 
STUDIES serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. Their chief use for delight is in privateness and retiring; for ornament, is in discourse; and for ability, is in the judgment and disposition of business. For expert men can execute, and perhaps judge of particulars, one by one; but the general counsels, and the plots and marshalling of affairs, come best from those that are learned. To spend too much time in studies is sloth; to use them too much for ornament, is affectation; to make judgment wholly by their rules, is the humor of a scholar. They perfect nature, and are perfected by experience: for natural abilities are like natural plants, that need proyning, 1 by study; and studies themselves do give forth directions too much at large, except they be bounded in by experience. Crafty men contemn studies, simple men admire them, and wise men use them; for they teach not their own use; but that is a wisdom without them, and above them, won by observation. Read not to contradict and confute; nor to believe and take for granted; nor to find talk and discourse; but to weigh and consider. Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested; that is, some books are to be read only in parts; others to be read, but not curiously; and some few to be read wholly, and with diligence and attention. Some books also may be read by deputy, and extracts made of them by others; but that would be only in the less important arguments, and the meaner sort of books, else distilled books are like common distilled waters, flashy 2 things. Reading maketh a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man. And therefore, if a man write little, he had need have a great memory; if he confer little, he had need have a present wit: and if he read little, he had need have much cunning, to seem to know that he doth not. Histories make men wise; poets witty; the mathematics subtile; natural philosophy deep; moral grave; logic and rhetoric able to contend. Abeunt studia in mores [Studies pass into and influence manners]. Nay, there is no stond or impediment in the wit but may be wrought out by fit studies; like as diseases of the body may have appropriate exercises. Bowling is good for the stone and reins; 3 shooting for the lungs and breast; gentle walking for the stomach; riding for the head; and the like. So if a man’s wit be wandering, let him study the mathematics; for in demonstrations, if his wit be called away never so little, he must begin again. If his wit be not apt to distinguish or find differences, let him study the Schoolmen; for they are cymini sectores [splitters of hairs]. If he be not apt to beat over matters, and to call up one thing to prove and illustrate another, let him study the lawyers’ cases. So every defect of the mind may have a special receipt.  1
 
Note 1. Pruning, cultivating. [back]
Note 2. Insipid. [back]

Note 3. Kidneys. [back]

论读书(王佐良先生译)

读书足以怡情,足以博采,足以长才。其怡情也,最见于独处幽居之时;其博采也,最见于高谈阔论之中;其长才也,最见于处世判事之际。练达之士虽能分别处理细事或一一判别枝节,然纵观统筹、全局策划,则舍好学深思者莫属。读书费时过多易惰,文采藻饰太盛则矫,全凭条文断事乃学究故态。读书补天然之不足,经验又补读书之不足,盖天生才干犹如自然花草,读书然后知如何修剪移接;而书中所示,如不以经验范之,则又大而无当。有一技之长者鄙读书,无知者羡读书,唯明智之士用读书,然书并不以用处告人,用书之智不在书中,而在书外,全凭观察得之。读书时不可存心诘难作者,不可尽信书上所言,亦不可只为寻章摘句,而应推敲细思。书有可浅尝者,有可吞食者,少数则须咀嚼消化。换言之,有只须读其部分者,有只须大体涉猎者,少数则须全读,读时须全神贯注,孜孜不倦。书亦可请人代读,取其所作摘要,但只限题材较次或价值不高者,否则书经提炼犹如水经蒸馏、淡而无味矣。

读书使人充实,讨论使人机智,笔记使人准确。因此不常作笔记者须记忆特强,不常讨论者须天生聪颖,不常读书者须欺世有术,始能无知而显有知。读史使人明智,读诗使人灵秀,数学使人周密,科学使人深刻,伦理学使人庄重,逻辑修辞之学使人善辩:凡有所学,皆成性格。人之才智但有滞碍,无不可读适当之书使之顺畅,一如身体百病,皆可借相宜之运动除之。滚球利睾肾,射箭利胸肺,慢步利肠胃,骑术利头脑,诸如此类。如智力不集中,可令读数学,盖演题须全神贯注,稍有分散即须重演;如不能辨异,可令读经院哲学,盖是辈皆吹毛求疵之人;如不善求同,不善以一物阐证另一物,可令读律师之案卷。如此头脑中凡有缺陷,皆有特药可医。

论读书 摘自http://www.cs.umb.edu/~zeke17/My %Poems/reading.htm

读书可以作为消遣,可以作为装饰,也可以增长才干。孤独寂寞时,阅读可以消遣;高谈阔论时,知识可以可供装饰;处世行事时;正确运用知识意味着才干。懂得事务因果的人是幸运的。有实际经验的人虽能够处理个别的事务,但要综观整体,运筹全局,却唯有学识方能办到。求知可以改进人性,而经验又可以改进知识本身。人的天性犹如野生的花草,求知学习好比修剪移栽。学问虽能指引方向,但往往流于浅泛,必须靠经验才能扎下根基。狡诈者轻鄙学问;愚鲁者羡慕学问;聪明者则运用学问。知识本身并没有告诉人怎样用它,运用的智慧在于书本之外。这是技艺,不体验就学不到。读书的目的是为了认识事物原理;为挑剔辩驳去读书是无聊的。不可过于迷信书本。求知的目的不是为了吹嘘炫耀,而应该是为了寻找真理,启迪智慧。书籍好比食品。有些只须浅尝,有些可以吞咽,只有少数需要仔细咀嚼,慢慢品味。所以有些书需要读其中一部分,有的书只须知其中梗概,而对于少数好书,则要通读,细读,反复读。有的书可以请人代读,然后看他的笔记摘要就行了。但这只限于不太重要的议论和质量粗劣的书。否则一本书将像已被蒸馏过的水,变得淡而无味了!

读书使人充实,讨论使人机敏,写作则使人精确。因此,如果有人不读书又想冒充博学多知,他就必须很狡­黠,才能掩饰无知。一个人如果懒于动笔,他的记忆力就必须可靠。一个人如果要孤独探索,他的头脑就必须格外敏锐。读史使人明智,读诗使人灵秀,演算使人精密,哲理使人深刻,道德使人高尚,逻辑修辞使人善辩。总之,知识能塑造人的性格。不仅如此,精神上的各种缺陷,都可以通过求知来改善——正如身体上的各种缺陷,可以通过适当的运动来改善一样。例如打球有助于腰背,射箭有助于胸肺,散步有助于消化,骑术有助于敏捷,等等。同样,一个思维不集中的人,他可以研习数学,因为数学稍不仔细就出错;缺乏分析判断力的人,他可以研习形而上学,因为这门学问最讲究繁琐辩证;不善于推理的人,可以研习法律案例,如此等等。这种种心灵上的缺陷,都可以通过求和来治疗。


※ 来源: http://www.JiaoYou8.com ※
 
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